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Water softener is a simple ion exchange process. Water softening is one of the most common tools of water treatment. It removes scale forming calcium and magnesium ion from hard water.
A standard water softener consists of four major components:
The resin tank contains treated ion exchange resin. The resin has great affinity for calcium and magnesium ions. When hard water is passed through the resin tank in service, calcium and magnesium ions adhere to the resin, releasing the sodium ion into water. When most of the sodium ions have been replaced with hardness ions, the resin is exhausted and needs to be regenerated. Regeneration is achieved by passing brine solution through the resin tank, replacing the calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions.